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Dual Enrollment Comp/US History: Chicago

Chicago Style

Chicago style has two main texts-one developed by Kate L. Turabian at the University of Chicago in 1937, and the official source- the Chicago Manual of Style.  As the university dissertation secretary, Turabian's manual (now in its 8th edition) focuses on the composition and notation of thesis, research papers, and disssertations. The Chicago manual is a more general guide that provides clear direction on the composition and style of writing.  Professionally, Chicago style is used in the arts and humanities- in disciplines like history, philosophy, and art history.. To get an idea of how to cite various sources, check out the examples below. Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (available from the JC-Arnold or JC-Hillsboro Library Circulation Desk), and the Purdue OWL (Online Writing Lab) are useful sources to get started. Keep in mind that each source will be cited a little differently. The best way to make sure you are citing your sources correctly is to check one of the Chicago style manuals.

Citing Sources

Citing a Book

This is what a bibliography citation would look like for the above book:

 

Dobbs, Michael. One Minute to Midnight: Kennedy, Khrushchev, and Castro on the Brink

        of Nuclear War. New York: Alfred A. Knopf Publishing, 2008.

 

 There are particular ways to cite multiple authors, anonymous books, books in various editions, and so on. To find out exactly how to cite your particular book, refer to section 14 in the The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed- Bibliographies, or look at A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (Turabian), 8th ed which contains a section on bibliographies in section 16, beginning on page 144. The Chicago manual 16th ed. is available at the circulation desk at the Hillsboro campus library, and you can find A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (Turabian), 8th ed. at both Arnold and Hillsboro campus libraries. Chicago Manual of Style, and Turabian's Manual for Writers... are almost identical, except for a few small style elements. If you are unsure which manual to use, ask your instructor for their recommendation.

Also note: there are separate rules for citing ebooks, available in both manuals.

Citing Other Sources

Each source needs to be cited according to Chicago style standards. To figure out how to do so, look in either the Chicago manual or the Turabian manual and find the section on notes and bibliography. The texts will list general rules, and then give you an example of how a source would look with both the note and bibliography formating. Each type of source will be cited a little differently. For example, a website citation looks different than a book citation, or an article citation. Take your time to make sure your citations are formatted correctly. If you need help, please contact a librarian.

Notes and Bibliography

You will need to cite your sources in two key places. First, cite your source in a note. A note is just a number that corresponds to a list with source information. Notes are used to show where your ideas come from within a document. They are formatted differently from the citations used in the bibliography (see below), and generally have a page number, or other placemarker in the citation.  Notes can take two forms. A footnote is a note that appears at the bottom of a page. It can look like this:

In Dobb's book, he points out that the problem with delayed communications within the navy and airforce basically made nuclear defense a moot point. Washington would be a smoking crater in the ground by the time the order to execution order was authenticated.¹ This could have serious repercussions for national security, and was actually much more of an issue on the Soviey side of the equation. In any case, there was sometimes as long as a ten-hour delay for authentitcation.


¹ Michael Dobbs, One Minute to Midnight: Kennedy, Khrushchev, and Castro on the Brink of Nuclear War (New York: Alfred A. Knopf Publishing, 2008), 164.


The other type of note is called an endnoteAn endnote works exactly the same way, but the citation is at the end of the document rather than the end of the page. Endnotes are still followed by bibliographies, and are generally labeled with a header that reads either 'endnotes' or 'notes'.

Bibliographies are collections of works used or considered while writing a paper, disseration, or book. Some authors include sources in a bibliography that are pivitol to their understanding of a given topic. Bibliographies are meant to be a source for readers to find ideas related to the paper, so that they might evaluate the author's ideas, and make their own conclusions about a given argument the author makes.  A bibliography might look like this:

 

Bibliography

 

Dobbs, Michael. One Minute to Midnight: Kennedy, Khrushchev, and Castro on the Brink

        of Nuclear War. New York: Alfred A. Knopf Publishing, 2008.

Roberts, Adam. "International Relations after the Cold War." International

        Affairs 84:2 (2008): 335-350.

Citing an Article

The above article would be cited this way in a bibliography:

Roberts, Adam. "International Relations after the Cold War." International

        Affairs 84:2 (2008): 335-350.

If you are citing an article in an electronic journal that does not appear in print, you should also include the date the journal was accessed, and the doi or url. These are identifiers that allow the digital article to be located quickly.  For more information on this, see The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed.- page 734.

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